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BC -The Scientific Method And Uses.

Hi, I’m Lee Hayden,  website owner, manager, and author .  Welcome to the Hayden Center For Educational Excellence.  The Hayden Center  offers students a variety of educational programs of study, each  program leading to an opportunity to  experience a unique  form of  lifestyle  enrichment.  Click here to review the available programs of study, courses, durations, and costs.  Contact Lee Hayden at 707-945-1294 if you have questions.


This  subject of this course is: “The Scientific Method and Uses”.  This is a free brief course.  Similar  to all  brief courses,  it only introduces and   summarizes the key ideas contained in the associated fee based short course. Short courses are more complete and uniquely beneficial because they are conducted in a  face-to-face in person or online learning environment which assures the studied material becomes working knowledge.  As brief/short course author ,  I sincerely strive to produce courses whose content meets or exceeds common standards of excellence, objectivity, reliability, and life enrichment.

 To enroll in the short course, phone Lee at 702-945-1294.






With notable exceptions,Man’s  knowledge of the universe has greatly benefited Man.  Knowledge of the universe really means knowledge of the reality in which we human beings exists.   In fact, Man’s  survivability and  continuous enhancement in quality of living has been historically dependent on the accumulation of knowledge in such diverse areas as crop and food  production, electronics and communication, physical and mental health care, transportation, building construction, public and private education, and many other areas.  Knowledge of the universe will become increasingly crucial in the future with a rapidly growing population and depletion of resources.  Many new areas where knowledge is critical will evolve.  Man will require  knowledge that is trustworthy, reliable, and visible  to all Men.   Knowledge that benefits Man is defined by Man and thus exists in multiple categories. A few typical top level categories include  theological, philosophical, scientific, and psychological.  The nuclear bomb and the 9-11-2001 tower collapses are examples of the perversion of knowledge.


As reality becomes increasingly complex, the explanatory power of knowledge will also expand rapidly.


Unfortunately, Man’s ability to acquire reliable knowledge with minimal error bias is a well-known difficult problem of philosophy. Firstly, all raw data  are received through our senses and filtered by relatively poor sensory system  resolution.  Secondly, the filtered raw data is interrelated by our mind where interpretation errors are easily possible. Thirdly, the extent the raw data actually represents the external world is not known. All data observations are based on human experience and ideas, theories, and relationships created by Man are said to be empirical.  The methodology found to be most useful for creating the most reliable knowledge is known as the scientific method.


Generation of reliable knowledge has also been problematic from a historical perspective.  Methods have been authoritarian, mystical, logic-rational, and scientific.  The principal distinction among these is the manner in which each vests confidence in the producer of the information that is alleged to be true, in the procedure by which the knowledge was produced, and the effect of the knowledge.  The scientific method deliberately and systematically eliminates the first three  previously mentioned sources and it also successfully eliminates the individual scientist.  Instead, of a single scientist dominated,   it would be highly desirable to eliminate all producer, procedure, and effect biases to the maximum extent possible


The elements of the scientific  methodology are presented in the Table 1 below:  The scientific method constitutes the rules whereby consensus agreement among a group of individuals about specific images of the world is reached.  The methodological rules of the scientific process strives to  eliminate the individual’s biases, not by an impossible effort to substitute excessive objectivity into the problem situation, but by substituting rules for  criticism, debate, and, utilization agreement.  Whatever method is adopted, it should not limit progress in that area.

































All theories developed under a given paradigm require a statement of assumptions.


Validation of all new theories, developed using the scientific method rules, is ultimately performed by a collection of Men.





Table 1.  Elements of the Scientific Methodology



1

Observations of data patterns

2

Empirical generalization

3

Statement of assumptions

4

Hypothesis formulation and testing

5

Theory formulation and testing

6

Peer review and journal acceptance/publication

7

Scientists use new theory instead of old theory

The Scientific Method and Uses The Scientific Method and Uses